Dypet Rod wrote:
Yuna24 wrote:I talk about my country Brazil, what is happening in my country.
And just to add to the data you say: from two different sources I've just checked, whites (mostly European descendants) make up 44-47% of the Brazilian population, people who call themselves blacks make up only about 7-8%, and the remaining percentage is made up of browns, natives and other races. I definitely don't see a majority of blacks when I walk out there, either. Besides, if blacks were even close to 80% of the total population, how would it be possible for a black person to not be allowed to enter a mall, as you've stated?
Sorry I didn't answer you before, I didn't see your answer about what I said earlier.
I chose to make a brief summary to answer you, this time with data to support what I've been talking about in this topic rather than writing a simple text as I did before.
About the classification of color or race:
"IBGE researches the color or race of the Brazilian population based on self-declaration. That is, people are asked about their color according to the following options: white, black, brown, indigenous or yellow." (Extracted from: Meet Brazil - Population
COLOR OR RACE.
available at:https://educa.ibge.gov.br/jovens/conhec ... -raca.html
Reflection on the number you came up with and why it is not accurate: Problem with racial self-declaration
"In theory, racial self-classification would be a more reflexive process involving personal socialization, whereas third-party categorization would involve perceptions of status, geographical location, and relative notions of color (Cohen, 1994; Erikson, 1968: 89). However , the official rating system includes interviewee and interviewer self-perception, which often marks the interviewee's color by assuming the answer is obvious, feeling uncomfortable to ask the question, or not considering the question as important ( In addition, the respondent is responsible for the color declaration of all residents of the household, and this statement may not correspond to the color in which members of that household would classify themselves. combination of self-declaration and interviewer perception.
The results obtained by racial classification systems depend on the classification scheme used and also on who performs the classification (Bailey, 2008; Bailey and Telles, 2006; Telles and Lim, 1998). Different people may classify the same individual in different ways and yet classify them as being made by the same person, and may view, alter the situation, alter and interpret the question. Despite the socially shared social meanings of race / color, inclusion in predefined categories is not something fixed. This is particularly true in Brazil, where a racial classification tends to be ambiguous and volatile. The way people classify each other and identify themselves automatically is often contradictory, varying according to a social situation (Sansone, 2003; Simões and Jeronymo, 2007). Racial classification in Brazil, therefore, "is far from being an exact science" (Telles, 2004: 88).
Recent research, for example, shows that inequality between income and health depends on one-dimensional and multidimensional measures of employed races (Saperstein, 2006; 2008; 2008; 2011; Saperstein and Sykes, 2008).
Little is known about the agreement between racial classifications in Brazil. We do not yet know the percentage of people who classify (and are classified) in the same racial category when different classification methods, containing the same categories, are used, for example. Four studies investigated how racial categorization would change if race / color data were collected using methodologies other than those imposed by the IBGE. Telles and Lim (1998) measured income inequality between whites, browns and blacks, and found that whites earn 26% more than mulattos when racial classification is made by the interviewer and 17% more than browns when color is self-declared. Racial inequality between blacks and browns remains virtually unchanged: Blacks earn 13% less browns when they are classified by the interviewer and 12% less when declaring their own color. Thus, according to this research, depending on how racial categorization is implemented, income inequality between whites and browns changes significantly.
In another study, Bailey and Telles (2006) investigated how adopting the terms "brown" and "black" would alter the population's race / color distribution compared to IBGE categories. The authors show that 40% of Brazilians choose the term "dark", especially younger people, those with fewer years of schooling and people living in areas with few whites. In particular, 13% of whites, 60% of browns and 38% of blacks prefer to fall into the broad category of "brunettes". The authors also demonstrate that the term "black" is more prevalent among people with higher socioeconomic status and who call themselves "black" in the official census classification. More recently, Bailey (2009) used data from PESB 2002 to investigate how the dichotomous format - black or white - would affect the identification of beneficiaries of specific racial policies and future classification trajectories. The author shows that approximately half of browns opt for the "white" category when response options are restricted to black or white terms only. The dichotomous format increases white participation from 49% to 67% " (Extracted from: Black in white? Measurement, relevance and classificatory agreement in the country of racial uncertainty.
Available at:http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script= ... 2000100007
"THE BLACK IN BRAZIL
In order to understand the current situation of black people in Brazil, it is first necessary to know how their history was constituted in the country. In this sense, it is impossible not to mention the importance that black people had for Brazilian society. see the inherited traits of the black population. The arrival of blacks to the country is known to have occurred in inhuman conditions, and that its role was to cater to all day-to-day activities, be it in plantations, in manufacturing, in street trading, in shops, in among workshops, among others (FIGUEIREDO, 2014).
However, their “services” were no longer important as they did not meet the new economic system adopted by the Russian Revolution and the Industrial Revolution, which led to the abolition
of slavery, which would structurally change Brazilian society. Blacks, after abolition, were left out of society, being replaced by immigrants, who already had knowledge about the machinofatura in agricultural production, which, consequently, led blacks to go to urban areas (FIGUEIREDO, 2014), where , according to Souza (2005), began to perform subordinate functions, since only few could educate themselves, rise in business and prosper.
In most cases, former slaves began to live in peripheral urban areas because they were geographically excluded and exposed to racial prejudice.
the tenements and the slums (FIGUEIREDO, 2014), which, according to Carril (2006), correspond to the housing nucleus that arose wildly on public land, located in areas without urbanization.
According to Figueiredo (2014, p. 4): As a consequence of this whole process of slavery and marginalization after slavery, black people remained in Brazilian society for a long time occupying a situation of social risk and vulnerability in the face of the intense prejudice with which they were treated.(FIGUEIREDO, 2014, p. 4).
Nevertheless, it is still debated today whether or not there really is racial discrimination in Brazil. Those who admit its existence cite the various cases of racist attitudes that occur daily in various sectors of society. Those who do not admit the existence of racial discrimination in Brazil base their position on the fact that the country is home to a large number of mestizos and that true discrimination considers the social class of the individual and not the color of their skin (LOBO, 2008).
The mere existence of this doubt, despite the many studies and research that demonstrate the socioeconomic vulnerability of black people in Brazil, points to the danger of this situation, as explained by the prosecutor and representative of the National Council of the Public Prosecution, Maria Bernadete Figueroa: Racism is a great unknown to the Brazilian people and the institutions of this country. People do not know the concept and therefore think it does not even exist ”(PNUD, 2015). Also according to Figueroa, knowing and admitting the existence of racial discrimination is fundamental to identify the institutional mechanisms that determine the reproduction of racism in Brazil.
THE PLACE OF BLACK IN URBAN SPACE
The main argument of those who do not recognize the existence of racism in Brazil is the claim that social discrimination is motivated by financial factors without any racial influence. However, as we have shown earlier in this article, the historical heritage of black exploitation in Brazil has repercussions in several areas, especially economic development.
The history of black people in Brazil shows that there was no concern with their integration into the process of class society formation and socioeconomic development in the post-abolition period, as many after the abolition choose to stay on the farms, others decide to move to other places where they find it difficult to settle down, since in order to be entitled to land they must have purchasing power (BARRETO, 2010).
The same author also emphasizes that at least as long as they are free, they are trapped, since they carry the stigma of color with them, in addition to their previous situation as a slave. Thus, the process of urbanization and industrialization contributed to forms of exclusion of the black population, considered one of the most vulnerable groups.
According to Campos (2006), blacks and browns following history were the last to arrive in the modern Brazilian economy, even being part of the daily life of society for at least four centuries; they were the last to have a right to the educational system (although until the twentieth century they constituted the majority of the population); they were the first to suffer discrimination initially because they were slaves and then because of their color.
Thus, the inheritance of slavery is perceived as one of the factors of “marginalization” of the black, reflecting racial inequalities and discriminatory practices. In addition, the exploitation of the black workforce contributes to the historical maintenance of the allocation and segregation of its workforce in certain markets, that is, the concentration of black workers in low-wage sectors.
From this perspective, there is a tendency to treat poor neighborhoods as occupations or invasions of urban areas, consisting of black populations, far from urbanistic discourse.
Barreto (2010) emphasizes that although there is no longer the punishment and whips of the overseers as forms of punishment, racial discrimination, painful activity, prejudice and the worst places to live end up constituting a new form of punishment.
Following this line of reasoning, Campos (2006) reports that cities were not made for the poorer classes, so transport is deteriorated, the poor, especially a significant portion of African descent, suffer from urban shortages (such as transportation, housing). , education, leisure, among others.). And that urban planning in Brazilian cities (among them the author cites Rio de Janeiro) is inefficient as it meets the needs of the poorest populations. " (Extracted from: Social and Racial Segregation: Reflections and discussion about Brazilian urban space and Macapa - AP.
Available at: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source= ... LWO0jsYZDv
"Man accuses market security of aggression and racism in Florianópolis"https://www.google.com/amp/s/noticias.u ... is.amp.htm
"In Sao Paulo, blacks are more condemned than whites for trafficking"https://www.cartacapital.com.br/socieda ... r-trafico/
"Young black people are barred in ES mall and parents go to the police
Minors say they were barred from entering Moxuara Mall. According to victims, security guards claimed to have an injunction for the ban".http://g1.globo.com/espirito-santo/noti ... licia.html
School tour has barred entrance to luxury mall in Sao Paulohttps://www.google.com/amp/s/claudia.ab ... paulo/amp/
Boy is barred in SP mall and mother makes complaint for racismhttps://www.google.com/amp/s/www.uol.co ... mo.amp.htm
Racism generates 31% pay gap between blacks and whites, poll says
Racial prejudice would explain persistent inequality among higher education workershttps://www1.folha.uol.com.br/mercado/2 ... uisa.shtml
In fact I can not talk about everything that happens in Brazil because I am not everyone, people are unique and each has a life story that differs from each other in many ways. When I read speeches like you I think, am I really exaggerating? Are the black brothers and sisters with whom I spoke too exaggerating, and what has happened to me all my life and the brothers and sisters of race are isolated facts? But then when I hear more reports, I see some news about it and read published articles I see that it's not my exaggeration, it really happens. I don't know if you live in Brazil too and if you are black as I am, but your view is different and that makes me happy because maybe you were not a victim of the same as me and many brothers and sisters "subtly" we passed every day.
And yes, I understand that we of the black race can get out of these troublesome situations, live as Father Satan wants and the Duat Gods and Goddesses too, but it takes time, so many traumas and so many things to work on. Sometimes the discourse of resilience and overcoming is insensitive and hinders the process of moving on.
Aren't we each on our own journey? We didn't reincarnate and now we're here? It all takes time.
I continue to say that approximately 80% of Brazil's population is black (brown and black) based on what I observe. Maybe I'm wrong about that.
I feel ridiculous and stupid to write this, but come on. White people stay white no matter how much sun they get, right? How can a person be considered white if the skin darkens too much after sunny hours? And yes, I know this can vary from where a person lives, to how much melanin, I don't know, but a white person doesn't change skin tone so much. Am I wrong to think so?
An example is my brother, he was registered in the maternity ward as white and in fact he was white when he was a baby. Today he has darker skin than mine, the result of hours in the sun. My former best friend turned red as a tomato in the sun and his skin tone never changed, his mother too, and she worked in the fields, for years in a region where the sun is scorching.
I was born black and my skin color never changed =D
I don't know if the data I posted will make sense to you, I'm not trying to convince anyone, but I will not invalidate what I see happening in Brazil. Look I'm not even focusing on the indigenous race of Brazil. I could post more material about it and talk for hours about the misrepresented racial segregation that happens in Brazil and yet it is a big problem here, all the fault of the damned Jews and derivatives of Judaism aka Christianity and Islam; I think the most important thing is to continue meditations, do RTR's and live.